The GAPS Programme with HARPS-N at TNG XV. A substellar companion around a K giant star identified with quasi-simultaneous HARPS-N and GIANO measurements
González-Álvarez et al
Identification of planetary companions of giant stars is made difficult because of the astrophysical noise, that may produce radial velocity (RV) variations similar to those induced by a companion. On the other hand any stellar signal is wavelength dependent, while signals due to a companion are achromatic.
Our goal is to determine the origin of the Doppler periodic variations observed in the thick disk K giant star TYC 4282-605-1 by HARPS-N at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) and verify if they can be due to the presence of a substellar companion.
Several methods have been used to exclude the stellar origin of the observed signal including detailed analysis of activity indicators and bisector and the analysis of the photometric light curve. Finally we have conducted an observational campaign to monitor the near infrared (NIR) RV with GIANO at the TNG in order to verify whether the NIR amplitude variations are comparable with those observed in the visible.
Both optical and NIR RVs show consistent variations with a period at 101 days and similar amplitude, pointing to the presence of a companion orbiting the target. The main orbital properties obtained for our giant star with a derived mass of M=0.97+-0.03M_sun are M_Psini=10.78+-0.12MJ;P=101.54+-0.05days;e=0.28+-0.01 and a=0.422+-0.009AU. The chemical analysis shows a significant enrichment in the abundance of Nai, Mgi, Ali and S i while the rest of analyzed elements are consistent with the solar value demonstrating that the chemical composition corresponds with an old K giant (age = 10.1 Gyr) belonging to local thick disk.
We conclude that the substellar companion hypothesis for this K giant is the best explanation for the observed periodic RV variation. This study also shows the high potential of multi-wavelength RV observations for the validation of planet candidates.