An extreme planetary system around HD219828. One long-period super Jupiter to a hot-neptune host star
Santos et al
With about 2000 extrasolar planets confirmed, the results show that planetary systems have a whole range of unexpected properties. We present a full investigation of the HD219828 system, a bright metal-rich star for which a hot neptune has previously been detected. We used a set of HARPS, SOPHIE, and ELODIE radial velocities to search for the existence of orbiting companions to HD219828. A dynamical analysis is also performed to study the stability of the system and to constrain the orbital parameters and planet masses. We announce the discovery of a long period (P=13.1years) massive (msini=15.1MJup) companion (HD219828c) in a very eccentric orbit (e=0.81). The same data confirms the existence of a hot-neptune, HD219828b, with a minimum mass of 21 MEarth and a period of 3.83days. The dynamical analysis shows that the system is stable. The HD219828 system is extreme and unique in several aspects. First, among all known exoplanet systems it presents an unusually high mass ratio. We also show that systems like HD219828, with a hot neptune and a long-period massive companion are more frequent than similar systems with a hot jupiter instead. This suggests that the formation of hot neptunes follows a different path than the formation of their hot jovian counterparts. The high mass, long period, and eccentricity of HD219828c also make it a good target for Gaia astrometry as well as a potential target for atmospheric characterisation, using direct imaging or high-resolution spectroscopy. Astrometric observations will allow us to derive its real mass and orbital configuration. If a transit of HD219828b is detected, we will be able to fully characterise the system, including the relative orbital inclinations. With a clearly known mass, HD219828c may become a benchmark object for the range in between giant planets and brown dwarfs.