Collisions of CO2 Ice Grains in Planet Formation
Musiolik et al
In protoplanetary disks, CO2 is solid ice beyond its snow line at ∼10AU. Due to its high abundance, it contributes heavily to the collisional evolution in this region of the disk. For the first time, we carried out laboratory collision experiments with CO2 ice particles and a CO2-covered wall at a temperature of 80 K. Collision velocities varied between 0 - 2.5 m/s. Particle sizes were on the order of ∼ 100 μm. We find a threshold velocity between the sticking and the bouncing regime at 0.04 m/s. Particles with greater velocities but below 1 m/s bounce off the wall. For yet greater velocities, fragmentation occurs. We give analytical models for the coefficients of restitution and fragmentation strength consistent with the experimental data. Set in context, our data show that CO2 ice and silicate dust resemble each other in the collisional behavior. Compared to water ice the sticking velocity is an order of magnitude smaller. One immediate consequence as example is that water ice particles mantled by CO2 ice lose any "sticking advantage." In this case, preferential planetesimal growth attributed to the sticking properties of water ice will be limited to the region between the H2O ice line and the CO2 ice line.