Trojan resonant dynamics, stability, and chaotic diffusion, for parameters relevant to exoplanetary systems
Authors:Páez et al
Abstract:We investigate the dynamics of small trojan exoplanets in domains of secondary resonances within the tadpole domain of motion. We consider the limit of a massless trojan companion of a giant planet. Without other planets, this is a case of the elliptic restricted three body problem (ERTBP). The presence of more planets (the restricted multi-planet problem, RMPP) induces new direct and indirect secular effects on the trojan's dynamics. In the theoretical part of this paper, we develop a Hamiltonian formalism in action-angle variables, which allows to treat in a unified way resonant dynamics and secular effects on the trojan body in both the ERTBP or the RMPP. Our formalism leads to a decomposition of the Hamiltonian in two parts, H=Hb+Hsec. Hb, called the basic model, describes resonant dynamics in the short-period (epicyclic) and synodic (libration) degrees of freedom. Hsec contains only terms depending on slow (secular) angles. Hb is formally identical in the ERTBP and the RMPP, apart from a re-definition of angular variables. An important physical consequence is that the slow chaotic diffusion proceeds in both the ERTBP and the RMPP by a qualitatively similar dynamical mechanism better approximated by the paradigm of `modulational diffusion'. In the numerical part, we focus on the ERTBP for making a numerical demonstration of the chaotic diffusion process along resonances. Using color stability maps, we provide a survey of the resonant web for characteristic mass parameters of the primary, in which the secondary resonances from 1:5 to 1:12 (ratio of the short over the synodic period) and their resonant multiplets appear. We give numerical examples of diffusion of weakly chaotic orbits in the resonant web. We make a statistics of the escaping times in the resonant domain, and find power-law tails of the distribution of escaping times for slowly diffusing chaotic orbits.