The jet and the disk of the HH 212 low-mass protostar imaged by ALMA: SO and SO2 emission
Podio et al
To investigate the disk formation and jet launch in protostars is crucial to comprehend the earliest stages of star and planet formation. We aim to constrain the properties of the molecular jet and the disk of the HH 212 protostellar system at unprecedented angular scales through ALMA observations of sulfur-bearing molecules, SO 9(8)-8(7), SO 10(11)-10(10), SO2 8(2,6)-7(1,7). SO 9(8)-8(7) and SO2 8(2,6)-7(1,7) show broad velocity profiles. At systemic velocity they probe the circumstellar gas and the cavity walls. Going from low to high blue-/red-shifted velocities the emission traces the wide-angle outflow and the fast (~100-200 km/s) and collimated (~90 AU) molecular jet revealing the inner knots with timescales less than 50 years. The jet transports a mass loss rate greater than 0.2-2e-6 Msun/yr, implying high ejection efficiency ( greater than 0.03-0.3). The SO and SO2 abundances in the jet are ~1e-7-1e-6. SO 10(11)-10(10) emission is compact and shows small-scale velocity gradients indicating that it originates partly from the rotating disk previously seen in HCO+ and C17O, and partly from the base of the jet. The disk mass is greater than 0.002-0.013 Msun, and the SO abundance in the disk is ~1e-8-1e-7. SO and SO2 are effective tracers of the molecular jet in the inner few hundreds AU from the protostar. Their abundances indicate that 1% - 40% of sulfur is in SO and SO2 due to shocks in the jet/outflow and/or to ambipolar diffusion at the wind base. The SO abundance in the disk is 3-4 orders of magnitude larger than in evolved protoplanetary disks. This may be due to an SO enhancement in the accretion shock at the envelope-disk interface or in spiral shocks if the disk is partly gravitationally unstable.