Hydrodynamic Photoevaporation of Protoplanetary Disks with Consistent Thermochemistry
Wang et al
Photoevaporation is an important dispersal mechanism for protoplanetary disks. We conduct hydrodynamic simulations coupled with ray-tracing radiative transfer and consistent thermochemistry to study photoevaporative winds driven by ultraviolet and X-ray radiation from the host star. Most models have a three-layer structure: a cold midplane, warm intermediate layer, and hot wind, the last having typical speeds ∼30 km s−1 and mass-loss rates ∼10−9 M⊙ yr−1 when driven primarily by ionizing UV radiation. Observable molecules including CO, OH and H2O re-form in the intermediate layer and survive at relatively high wind temperatures due to reactions being out of equilibrium. Mass-loss rates are sensitive to the intensity of radiation in energy bands that interact directly with hydrogen. Comparison with previous works shows that mass loss rates are also sensitive to the treatment of both the hydrodynamics and the thermochemistry. Divergent results concerning the efficiency of X-ray photoevaporation are traced in part to differing assumptions about dust and other coolants.