Formation of Terrestrial Planets in Disks with Different Surface Density Profiles
Haghighipour et al
We present the results of an extensive study of the final stage of terrestrial planet formation in disks with different surface density profiles and for different orbits of Jupiter and Saturn. We carried out simulations for disk densities proportional to r^-0.5, r^-1, and r^-1.5, and also for partially depleted disks as in the recent model of Mars formation by Izidoro et al (2014). The purpose of our study is to determine how the final assembly of planets and their physical properties are affected by the total mass of the disk and its radial profile. Because of the important roles of secular resonances in orbits and properties of the final planets, we studied the effects of these resonances as well. We have divided this study into two parts. In Part 1, we are interested in examining the effects of secular resonances on the formation of Mars and orbital stability of terrestrial planets. In Part 2, our goal is to determine trends that may exist between the disk surface density profile and the final properties of terrestrial planets. In the context of the depleted disk model, results show that the nu_5 resonance does not have a significant effect on the final orbits of terrestrial planets. However, nu_6 and nu_16 resonances play important roles in clearing their affected areas ensuring that no additional mass will be scattered into the accretion zone of Mars so that it can maintain its mass and orbital stability. In Part 2, our results indicate that despite some small correlations, in general, no trend seems to exist between the disk surface density profile and the mean number of the final planets, their masses, time of formation, and distances to the central star. We present the results of our simulations and discuss their implications for the formation of Mars and other terrestrial planets, as well as the physical properties of these objects such as their masses and water contents.