Magneto-thermal Disk Wind from Protoplanetary Disks
Bai et al
Global evolution and dispersal of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) is governed by disk angular momentum transport and mass-loss processes. Recent numerical studies suggest that angular momentum transport in the inner region of PPDs is largely driven by magnetized disk wind, yet the wind mass-loss rate remains unconstrained. On the other hand, disk mass loss has conventionally been attributed to photoevaporation, where external heating on the disk surface drives a thermal wind. We unify the two scenarios by developing a 1D model of magnetized disk winds with a simple treatment of thermodynamics as a proxy for external heating. The wind properties largely depend on 1) the magnetic field strength at the wind base, characterized by the poloidal Alfv\'en speed vAp, 2) the sound speed cs near the wind base, and 3) how rapidly poloidal field lines diverge (achieve R−2 scaling). When vAp≫cs, corotation is enforced near the wind base, resulting in centrifugal acceleration. Otherwise, the wind is accelerated mainly by the pressure of the toroidal magnetic field. In both cases, the dominant role played by magnetic forces likely yields wind outflow rates that well exceed purely hydrodynamical mechanisms. For typical PPD accretion-rate and wind-launching conditions, we expect vAp to be comparable to cs at the wind base. The resulting wind is heavily loaded, with total wind mass loss rate likely reaching a considerable fraction of wind-driven accretion rate. Implications for modeling global disk evolution and planet formation are also discussed.